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3D Physics

These pages aim to give enough physics information to allow physical objects to be simulated by a computer program.

Overview Overview of methods to simulate physics using analytical and numerical methods
Statics Situation where forces are in balance.
Kinematics Kinematics: The study and description of motion, without regard to its causes, including position, orientation, velocity, angular velocity, acceleration. For example, we can calculate the end point of a robot arm from the angles of all its joints. Alternatively, given the end point of the robot arm, we could calculate the angles and settings of all its joints required to put it there (inverse kinematics - IK).
Dynamics Covers the causes of motion in terms of properties like mass and inertia. Including movement in free space, rotation of solid body, Inertia, Energy and Momentum, Collision, Impulse and Spring, mass, damper model
Numerical methods In some cases, especially when we are not dealing with solid bodies we may need to use other methods such as Finite Element Method, relaxation methods or equations model
Particles and Fluids Water or Gas and particles
Table Top Physics Gives examples and thought experiments to illustrate some of the problems and complexities that we need to solve
Other Other physics topics that might be involved such as Light, Sound, Heat, Electricity/Magnetism and Human Animation
Algorithm to animate solid object in computer program This puts together the kinematics and dynamics concepts into practical algorithms that can be used in computer programs
Quantum Mechanics  
Physics Books Further reading

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Book Shop - Further reading.

Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for books that are relevant to the subject, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the book or to buy it from them.

cover Physics for Game Developers - Assumes a knowledge of vectors, Matrix and trigonometry (the book has a one page introduction to quatnions). The book introduces Newtons laws but it does assume a basic knowledge physics. It covers Kinematics, Force, Kinetics, Collision (detection), Projectiles, Aircraft, Ships, Hovercraft, Cars, Real-time, 2D rigid body, Collision Response, Rigid body rotation, 3D rigid body, multiple bodies in 3D and particles. (I cant find a general formula for collision response which combines linear and rotation, but there may be something in the code included?). If you don't have the prerequisite knowledge of Matrices etc. you may want to get the Mathematics for 3D Game programming book first.

cover Permutation City. A science fiction book which suggests how virtual reality might evolve.


Commercial Software Shop

Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for commercial software, not directly related to the software project, but related to the subject being discussed, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the software or to buy it from them.

cover LEGO Mindstorms NXT - Allows you to build a robot and program it from a PC or Mac. Contains an Intelligent Brick with 32-bit microprocessor, memory and FLASH, 3 Interactive Servo motors with built-in rotation sensors, sound sensor, ultrasonic sensor, touch sensor, light sensor, USB 2.0 and Bluetooth support. Icon-based drag-and-drop program "building" environment.

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