Maths - Semidirect Product

This is a modification to the direct product described on this page. Here we will apply a mapping to one of the operands before applying the direct product:

{n, h}&22CA;φ {n',h'} = {n * φ(n') , h o h' }

where:

Here we are using the right handed semidirect product &22CA;, we can change to the left handed semidirect product&22C9;by exchanging the operands.

The mapping is done as follows, we first generate cosets of the first group, we apply the group operation to these cosets but slightly modified as follows:

We then use a mapping of the second group to select which coset to use for each product of the second group.

Example C2&22CA;C3

As with the direct product example we will try calculating the product of C2 and C3. As a reminder these are the definitions of these groups individually (full definitions on this page):

C2

generator cayley graph table permutation representation
<m | m²> c2 graph
1 m
m 1
< ( 1 2 ) >
0 1
1 0

C3

generator cayley graph table permutation representation
<r | r³> c3 graph
1 r
r 1
1 r
< ( 1 2 3 ) >
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0

direct product C3 × C2

This gives :

generator cayley graph table
<m,r | m²,r³,rm=mr> c3c2 graph
{1,1} {r,1} {r²,1} {1,m} {r,m} {r²,m}
{r,1} {r²,1} {1,1} {r,m} {r²,m} {1,m}
{r²,1} {1,1} {r,1} {r²,m} {1,m} {r,m}
{1,m} {r,m} {r²,m} {1,1} {r,1} {r²,1}
{r,m} {r²,m} {1,m} {r,1} {r²,1} {1,1}
{r²,m} {1,m} {r,m} {r²,1} {1,1} {r,1}
permutation representation  
<(1 2 3)(4 5 6),(1 4)(2 5)(3 6)>
[
0 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
,
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
]

Note that, in addition to applying both the generators and constrains for the original groups we have had to apply an additional constraint: rm=mr. If we had not done this we would have the infinite free product.

Generating a Semidirect Product using a Program

We can use a computer program to generate these groups, here I have used Axiom/FriCAS which is described here.

(1) -> )r axiom/semidirectProduct
)set output algebra off
)set output mathml on
-- first try C2 x C3
C2 := FiniteGroup(2,[[1,2],[2,1]],["1","m"])
                                                               Type: Type
SDP := semidirectProduct([[1,2,3],[2,3,1],[3,1,2]],["1","r","rr"],
                                    [[2,2,2],[2,2,2],[2,2,2]])$C2

                                                               Type: Type
toTable()$SDP

1 r rr m mr mrr
r rr 1 mr mrr m
rr 1 r mrr m mr
m mr mrr 1 r rr
mr mrr m r rr 1
mrr m mr rr 1 r
                      
                           

                                                           Type: Table(6)
setGenerators([false,true,false,true,false,false])$SDP
                                                               Type: Void
PSDP := toPermutation()$SDP

<(1 2 3)(4 5 6),(1 4)(2 5)(3 6)>
                           
                                

                                          Type: PermutationGroup(Integer)
permutationRepresentation(PSDP,6)

[
0 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
,
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
]
                      
                           

                                              Type: List(Matrix(Integer))
-- then try C3 x C2 with mapping [[2,2],[2,2]]
C3 := FiniteGroup(3,[[1,2,3],[2,3,1],[3,1,2]],["1","r","rr"])

                                                               Type: Type
SDP := semidirectProduct([[1,2],[2,1]],["1","m"],[[2,2],[2,2]])$C3

                                                               Type: Type
toTable()$SDP

1 m rr rrm r rm
m 1 rrm rr rm r
r rm 1 m rr rrm
rm r m 1 rrm rr
rr rrm r rm 1 m
rrm rr rm r m 1
                      
                           

                                                           Type: Table(6)
setGenerators([false,true,true,false,false,false])$SDP
                                                               Type: Void
PSDP := toPermutation()$SDP

<(1 2)(3 4)(5 6),(1 3 5)(2 4 6)>
                           
                                

                                          Type: PermutationGroup(Integer)
permutationRepresentation(PSDP,6)

[
0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 1 0
,
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
]
                      
                           

                                              Type: List(Matrix(Integer))
-- then try C3 x C2 with mapping [[1,1],[2,2]]
C3b := FiniteGroup(3,[[1,2,3],[2,3,1],[3,1,2]],["1","r","rr"])

                                                               Type: Type
SDP := semidirectProduct([[1,2],[2,1]],["1","m"],[[1,1],[2,2]])$C3b

                                                               Type: Type
toTable()$SDP

1 m r rm rr rrm
m 1 rrm rr rm r
r rm rr rrm 1 m
rm r m 1 rrm rr
rr rrm 1 m r rm
rrm rr rm r m 1
                      
                           

                                                           Type: Table(6)
setGenerators([false,true,true,false,false,false])$SDP
                                                               Type: Void
PSDP := toPermutation()$SDP

<(1 2)(3 6)(4 5),(1 3 5)(2 4 6)>
                           
                                

                                          Type: PermutationGroup(Integer)
permutationRepresentation(PSDP,6)

[
0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
,
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
]


                                              Type: List(Matrix(Integer))
(19) ->

Examples

Here are some examples of the semidirect product of groups:

Type Product Description
Dihedral
Group
dihedral group as semidirect product The dihedral group is the semidirect product of a cyclic group of order 2 and a cyclic group of order n
Isometries isometry as semidirect product

Isometries (distance preseving maps) in 3-space is the semidirect product of:

  • R3 : Addative group of translations.
  • {±1} : Reflections through the origin.
  • SO3 : Group of rotations in 3-space.
Poncaré poncare group as semidirect product

Poncaré group is the semidirect product of:

  • R4 : Addative group of translations in 4-space.
  • SO3,1 : Lorentz group.

 


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