If we need to model the deformations in the materials then we need a more complex model. Say by modeling a body as a set of points connected by springs etc. A bit like a 3 dimensional version of the Graph Network program distributed with the JDK.
A commercial program, for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response
of inelastic solids and structures. Models explicit, threedimensional, finite
elements. DYNA3D contain 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS)
to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented
are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic,
soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, BlatzKo rubber, high explosive
burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic,
temperature dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic
with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity
model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law
isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic,
composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear
isotropic plasticity, and inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable
model, MoonsyRivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell
plasticity, and FrazerNash rubber model. The IBM 3090 version does not contain
the last two models mentioned.
The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure
is determined by one of ten equations of state including linear polynomial,
JWL high explosive, Sack "Tuesday" high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio
of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth
of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse.
DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for
complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second
contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals;
1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interfaces data for contact
surfaces.
Airbags, Occupant Safety, Crash Analysis
Bird Strike, Blade containment, Crash
Stamping, Forging, Casting
Earthquake Safety, Concrete Structures
Drop Analysis, Package Design, Thermal
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see also:  
Correspondence about this page  
Book Shop  Further reading. Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for books that are relevant to the subject, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the book or to buy it from them. 
Physics for Game Developers  Assumes a knowledge of vectors, Matrix and trigonometry (the book has a one page introduction to quatnions). The book introduces Newtons laws but it does assume a basic knowledge physics. It covers Kinematics, Force, Kinetics, Collision (detection), Projectiles, Aircraft, Ships, Hovercraft, Cars, Realtime, 2D rigid body, Collision Response, Rigid body rotation, 3D rigid body, multiple bodies in 3D and particles. (I cant find a general formula for collision response which combines linear and rotation, but there may be something in the code included?). If you don't have the prerequisite knowledge of Matrices etc. you may want to get the Mathematics for 3D Game programming book first. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems  I have not reviewed this book, so I would be interested to hear if it is useful? I would also be interested to hear if there are any other books that may be of interest to readers of this page. Engineering Mechanics  Includes Statics book and dynamics book below.. Engineering Mechanics Vol 2: Dynamics  Gives theory for rigid dynamics, aims to allow prediction of effects of force and motion. Includes rotating frame of reference. Lots of colour diagrams, I guess its college / University level.

Commercial Software Shop Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for commercial software, not directly related to the software project, but related to the subject being discussed, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the software or to buy it from them. 

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