Maths - 2D multivector Powers

As we saw on this page the nature of powers depends on the nature of the square.


m = a + b e1 + c e2 + d e12

m² = (a + b e1 + c e2 + d e12)(a + b e1 + c e2 + d e12)

multiplying out the terms gives:

m² =
+a*b*e1 +a*c*e2 +a*d*e12
+b*a*e1 +b² +b*c*e12 +b*d*e2
+c*a*e2 -c*b*e12 +c² -c*d*e1
+d*a*e12 -d*b*e2 +d*c*e1 -d²

cancelling out the anticommuting terms gives:

m² =a²+b²+c²-d² + 2(a*b*e1+a*c*e2+a*d*e12)

To simplify this a bit let s= b²+c²-d²-a² so we get:

m² =s + 2a²+ 2(a*b*e1+a*c*e2+a*d*e12)

m² =s + 2a*m

Higher Order Powers

Using the above expression for the square we can generate all other powers from the term before it since:

if mn=u + v*m

where u and v are arbitary scalars then:

mn+1=u*m + v*m²

mn+1=u*m + v*(s + 2a*m)

mn+1=v*s + (u + v*2a)*m

so to derive the next term we use:

u' = v*s
v' = u + v*2a

which gives:

n u v
1 0 1
2 s 2a
3 2a*s 4a²+s
4 s² + 4*a²*s 4*s*a + 8*a³
5 4*s²*a + 8*s*a³ s² + 12*a²*s + 16*a4


Can we deal with the commuting terms and the anticommuting terms seperately? The commuting terms lead to binomial(or trinomial?) elements and the anticommuting terms lead to elements where even powers are scalar and odd powers are scalar multipiers of the original multivector.

Can we find such a pattern? Lets try the next term:

m³ =(s + 2a*m)*m

m³ =s*m + 2a*m²

m³ =s*m + 2a*(s + 2a*m)

m³ =s*m + 2a*s + 4a²*m

m³ =2a*s + (4a²+s)*m

So it seems that all powers seem to be a linear function of m

next m4

m4 = m²*m²

m4 = (s + 2a*m)*(s + 2a*m)

m4 = s² + 4*s*a*m + 4*a²*m²

m4 = s² + 4*s*a*m + 4*a²*(s + 2a*m)

m4 = (s² + 4*a²*s) + (4*s*a + 8*a³)*m

next m5

m5 = (s² + 4*a²*s)*m + (4*s*a + 8*a³)*m²

m5 = (s² + 4*a²*s)*m + (4*s*a + 8*a³)*(s + 2a*m)

m5 = (4*s²*a + 8*s*a³) + (s² + 12*a²*s + 16*a4)*m

metadata block
see also:


Correspondence about this page

Book Shop - Further reading.

Where I can, I have put links to Amazon for books that are relevant to the subject, click on the appropriate country flag to get more details of the book or to buy it from them.

flag flag flag flag flag flag Clifford Algebra to Geometric Calculus: A Unified Language for Mathematics and Physics (Fundamental Theories of Physics). This book is intended for mathematicians and physicists rather than programmers, it is very theoretical. It covers the algebra and calculus of multivectors of any dimension and is not specific to 3D modelling.


Terminology and Notation

Specific to this page here:


This site may have errors. Don't use for critical systems.

Copyright (c) 1998-2023 Martin John Baker - All rights reserved - privacy policy.