Particle types
There are 2 types of particles, fermions which make matter and bosons which
make forces.
Fermions
Fermions are particles which make matter, they all have a spin
which is an 1/2 integer.
The types are shown in this table, antimatter is the same but with inverse
charge.
The quarks (top two in table) are in nucleus. The leptons (bottom two in table)
are outside nucleus.
type 
electric charge 
weak charge 
strong charge 
gravity (isospin) 
generation 1 
generation 2 
generation 3 
quarks uptype 
+ 2/3 
+ 1/2 
yes 

u (up) 3 MeV 
c (charm) 1.2 Gev 
t 175 GeV 
quarks downtype 
 1/3 
 1/2 
yes 

d (down) 7 MeV 
s (strange) 120 Mev 
b 4.2 GeV 
leptons neutrinos 
0 
+ 1/2 
no 

Ve < 3eV 
vT < 18 MeV 
vT 18 MeV 
leptons charged 
1 
 1/2 
no 

e (electron) 0.511 Mev 
T (muon) 1.78 GeV 
T 1.78 GeV 
Colour neutral quarks (hadrons) can be combined as in following examples:
proton = u + u + d
neutron = u + d = d
Bosons
Bosons are particles which make forces (or do they just transport a force from
one point to another ? I don't really understand this) For example electromagnetism
travels through materials that photons cant travel through?


electomagnetism 
photon 
weak nuclear 
w^{t}
w^{1}
z^{0} 
strong nuclear 

gravitational 
graviton (speculative  not detected yet) 


Noether for Quantum Mechanics
See Noethers theorem.
For Particles (fermions) Angular Momentum is quantized. Particle spin and orbital states are always a half integer multiple of hbar. In other words,
spin = /2, 3*/2 ...
where:
 = h/2 PI
 h = Planck's constant
There is also something strange about the spin in that a rotation of 720 (not 360 degrees) is needed to get back to the original orientation. This can be modeled by quaternion (spinor) where a rotation of 360 degrees inverts all of its x,y,z and w elements.
If we take the Schrödinger's wave function for two particles:
(_{1},_{2},t)
We can investigate symmetry by exchanging the two particles:
for two bosons: (_{1},_{2},t) = (_{2},_{1},t)
for two fermions: (_{1},_{2},t) = (_{2},_{1},t)
In other words, if we exchange two identical fermions we invert the wave function. This is equivalent to rotating the system by 180 degrees.
This accounts for the pauli exclusion principle because if two identical particles were superimposed the wave function would be zero.
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