stores an extrusion
|Classes written for this program||Java3D classes (scene graph structure)|
eventIn MFVec2f set_crossSection
eventIn MFRotation set_orientation
eventIn MFVec2f set_scale
eventIn MFVec3f set_spine
field SFBool beginCap TRUE
field SFBool ccw TRUE
field SFBool convex TRUE
field SFFloat creaseAngle 0 # [0,)
field MFVec2f crossSection [ 1 1, 1 -1, -1 -1,
-1 1, 1 1 ] # (-,)
field SFBool endCap TRUE
field MFRotation orientation 0 0 1 0 # [-1,1],(-,)
field MFVec2f scale 1 1 # (0,)
field SFBool solid TRUE
field MFVec3f spine [ 0 0 0, 0 1 0 ] # (-,)
The Extrusion node specifies geometric shapes based on a two dimensional cross-section
extruded along a three dimensional spine in the local
coordinate system. The cross-section can be scaled and rotated at each spine point to produce a wide variety of shapes.
An Extrusion node is defined by:
a.a 2D crossSection piecewise linear curve (described as a series of connected
b.a 3D spine piecewise linear curve (also described as a series of connected vertices);
c.a list of 2D scale parameters;
d.a list of 3D orientation parameters.
6.18.2 Algorithmic description
Shapes are constructed as follows. The cross-section curve, which starts as
a curve in the Y=0 plane, is first scaled about the origin by the first
scale parameter (first value scales in X, second value scales in Z). It is then translated by the first spine point and oriented using the first
orientation parameter (as explained later). The same procedure is followed to place a cross-section at the second spine point, using the second
scale and orientation values. Corresponding vertices of the first and second cross-sections are then connected, forming a quadrilateral polygon
between each pair of vertices. This same procedure is then repeated for the rest of the spine points, resulting in a surface extrusion along the spine.
The final orientation of each cross-section is computed by first orienting
it relative to the spine segments on either side of point at which the
cross-section is placed. This is known as the spine-aligned cross-section plane (SCP), and is designed to provide a smooth transition from one
spine segment to the next (see Figure 6.6). The SCP is then rotated by the corresponding orientation value. This rotation is performed relative to
the SCP. For example, to impart twist in the cross-section, a rotation about the Y-axis (0 1 0) would be used. Other orientations are valid and
rotate the cross-section out of the SCP.
The SCP is computed by first computing its Y-axis and Z-axis, then taking the
cross product of these to determine the X-axis. These three axes
are then used to determine the rotation value needed to rotate the Y=0 plane to the SCP. This results in a plane that is the approximate tangent of
the spine at each point, as shown in Figure 6.6. First the Y-axis is determined, as follows:
Let n be the number of spines and let i be the index variable satisfying 0 <= i < n:
a.For all points other than the first or last: The Y-axis for spine[i] is
found by normalizing the vector defined by (spine[i+1] - spine[i-1]).
b.If the spine curve is closed: The SCP for the first and last points is the same and is found using (spine - spine[n-2]) to compute the
c.If the spine curve is not closed: The Y-axis used for the first point is the vector from spine to spine, and for the last it is the vector
from spine[n-2] to spine[n-1].
The Z-axis is determined as follows:
d.For all points other than the first or last: Take the following cross-product:
Z = (spine[i+1] - spine[i]) × (spine[i-1] - spine[i])
e.If the spine curve is closed: The SCP for the first and last points is the same and is found by taking the following cross-product:
Z = (spine - spine) × (spine[n-2] - spine)
f.If the spine curve is not closed: The Z-axis used for the first spine point
is the same as the Z-axis for spine. The Z-axis used for the last
spine point is the same as the Z-axis for spine[n-2].
g.After determining the Z-axis, its dot product with the Z-axis of the previous spine point is computed. If this value is negative, the Z-axis is
flipped (multiplied by -1). In most cases, this prevents small changes in the spine segment angles from flipping the cross-section 180 degrees.
Once the Y- and Z-axes have been computed, the X-axis can be calculated as their cross-product.
6.18.3 Special cases
If the number of scale or orientation values is greater than the number of
spine points, the excess values are ignored. If they contain one value, it is
applied at all spine points. The results are undefined if the number of scale or orientation values is greater than one but less than the number of spine
points. The scale values shall be positive.
If the three points used in computing the Z-axis are collinear, the cross-product is zero so the value from the previous point is used instead.
If the Z-axis of the first point is undefined (because the spine is not closed
and the first two spine segments are collinear) then the Z-axis for the first
spine point with a defined Z-axis is used.
If the entire spine is collinear, the SCP is computed by finding the rotation
of a vector along the positive Y-axis (v1) to the vector formed by the
spine points (v2). The Y=0 plane is then rotated by this value.
If two points are coincident, they both have the same SCP. If each point has
a different orientation value, then the surface is constructed by
connecting edges of the cross-sections as normal. This is useful in creating revolved surfaces.
Note: combining coincident and non-coincident spine segments, as well as other
combinations, can lead to interpenetrating surfaces
which the extrusion algorithm makes no attempt to avoid.
6.18.4 Common cases
The following common cases are among the effects which are supported by the Extrusion node:
Surfaces of revolution:
If the cross-section is an approximation of a circle and the spine is straight, the Extrusion is equivalent to a surface of revolution, where the
scale parameters define the size of the cross-section along the spine.
If the scale is (1, 1) and the spine is straight, the cross-section is extruded uniformly without twisting or scaling along the spine. The result is
a cylindrical shape with a uniform cross section.
These shapes are the result of using all fields. The spine curve bends the extruded shape defined by the cross-section, the orientation
parameters (given as rotations about the Y-axis) twist it around the spine, and the scale parameters taper it (by scaling about the spine).
6.18.5 Other fields
Extrusion has three parts: the sides, the beginCap (the surface at the initial
end of the spine) and the endCap (the surface at the final end of the
spine). The caps have an associated SFBool field that indicates whether each exists (TRUE) or doesn't exist (FALSE).
When the beginCap or endCap fields are specified as TRUE, planar cap surfaces
will be generated regardless of whether the crossSection is a
closed curve. If crossSection is not a closed curve, the caps are generated by adding a final point to crossSection that is equal to the initial point.
An open surface can still have a cap, resulting (for a simple case) in a shape analogous to a soda can sliced in half vertically. These surfaces are
generated even if spine is also a closed curve. If a field value is FALSE, the corresponding cap is not generated.
Texture coordinates are automatically generated by Extrusion nodes. Textures
are mapped so that the coordinates range in the U direction from 0
to 1 along the crossSection curve (with 0 corresponding to the first point in crossSection and 1 to the last) and in the V direction from 0 to 1 along
the spine curve (with 0 corresponding to the first listed spine point and 1 to the last). If either the endCap or beginCap exists, the crossSection
curve is uniformly scaled and translated so that the larger dimension of the cross-section (X or Z) produces texture coordinates that range from 0.0
to 1.0. The beginCap and endCap textures' S and T directions correspond to the X and Z directions in which the crossSection coordinates are
The browser shall automatically generate normals for the Extrusion node,using
the creaseAngle field to determine if and how normals are
smoothed across the surface. Normals for the caps are generated along the Y-axis of the SCP, with the ordering determined by viewing the
cross-section from above (looking along the negative Y-axis of the SCP). By default, a beginCap with a counterclockwise ordering shall have a
normal along the negative Y-axis. An endCap with a counterclockwise ordering shall have a normal along the positive Y-axis.
Each quadrilateral making up the sides of the extrusion are ordered from the
bottom cross-section (the one at the earlier spine point) to the top.
So, one quadrilateral has the points:
in that order. By default, normals for the sides are generated as described in 4.6.3, Shapes and geometry.
For instance, a circular crossSection with counter-clockwise ordering and the
default spine form a cylinder. With solid TRUE and ccw TRUE, the
cylinder is visible from the outside. Changing ccw to FALSE makes it visible from the inside.
The ccw, solid, convex, and creaseAngle fields are described in 4.6.3, Shapes and geometry.